How well controlled is your Diabetes?

A number of blood, urine, and other tests are necessary to check how well your diabetes is being controlled. For U.S.A. measurement units, see conversions. These are my results for 2005. Previous years: 1999-2001, 2002, 2003, 2004

Test Frequency Goal Notes
My Results
Oct04
Jan05
Apr05
Jul05
Oct05
Weight 3 months below 1801bs Pay attention to diet and exercise
200
205
205
205
-
Fasting Blood Suger 3 months 4.0-7.0 mmol/L Also premeal target (nondiabetic: 3.8-6.1); postmeal target is 5-11 mmol/L (nondiabetic: 4.4-7.0)
6.7
8.8
10.9
-
-
Meter Check 3 months Within 10% Check meter within 10 minutes of lab samples (-5.8%)
-
-
-
-
-
Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) 3 months Below 6%

Indicates level of blood glucose control over past 3 months and is based on life of RBC. According to the UKPDS, complications start at levels above 6.2, also see Rick Mendosa's A1c < 7 article; efforts to decrease HbA1c may lead to increased risk of hypoglycemia

6.5
6.8
6.2
7.7
-
Blood Pressure 3 months Below 125/75 Inhibace tends to lower pressure
-
-
-
-
-
Cholesterol 3 months < 5.2 Cholesterol is a lipid that resides in cells and is a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. High levels can cause narrowing or blockage of blood vessals which may lead to a heart attack or stroke. Low level may indicate liver problems
5.01
-
4.98
4.99
-
Triglycerides (TG) 3 months < 2.0 Triglycerides (or VLDL) make up 10-15% of cholesterol and are lipoproteins that provide a major reserve of energy for the body. High level associated with heart disease; can be reduced by: losing weight, eating less animal fat, eating more fish, and eating less carbohydrates
1.36
-
1.53
1.17
-
LDL 3 months < 2.5 LDL makes up 60-70% of cholesterol and is bad because cholesterol deposits form in arteries when LDL levels are high
3.08
-
3.20
3.22
-
HDL 3 months > 1.2 HDL makes up 20-30% of cholesterol and is good because higher levels protects against heart disease by helping to remove excessive arterial cholesterol deposits
1.31
-
1.08
1.23
-
Cholestorol/HDL 3 months < 3.5 Important predictor in determining risk of coronary atery disease
3.82
-
4.61
4.06
-
Serum Creatinine 3 months 60-110 µmol/L Creatinine is a waste product released from muscle tissues and excreted from the kidneys. Used to check intake of fluid or high protein food, muscle or nerve damage, kidney failure. High level can indicate dehydration or kidney problems. High level of creatinine in blood associated with decreased level in urine. Creatinine measured in urine is more accurate
109
115
109
110
-
Sodium - 135-145 mmol/L Sodium, potassium, and chloride are electrolytes and salts from them carry an electric charge that enables the heart, nerves, and muscles to work properly. Sodium is regulated by the kidneys and adrenal glands. Signs of high level: thirst, hypertension, shortness of breath; avoid eating too much salt (canned vegetables, potatoe chips, bacon, etc)
141
145
140
141
-
Potassium (K+) - 3.3 - 5.1 mmol/L Potassium is controlled by the kidneys; it is important for the proper functioning of nerves and muscles, especially the heart. High level may indicate kidney failure or problems with heartbeat and too much acid in the blood. Sign of high level: extreme weakness prior to heart attack; avoid foods high in potassium (bananas, oranges, potatoes, beans, nuts)
5.0
4.8
4.4
5.2 /4.3
-
Chloride - 95-108 mmol/L Excessive thirst is a sign of a high level (avoid canned vegetables, potatoe chips, bacon, luncheon meats (bologna, salami, etc)
103
105
103
107
-
CK (creatine kinase) 3 months <225µ/L Early predictor of heart attack risk
169
167
-
-
-
AST (aspartate aminotransferase) 3 months <37µ/L High level indicates liver disorders
27
24
29
28
-
ALT (alanine aminotransferase) - <41µ/L Liver disease
-
-
-
-
-
Alkaline Phosphatase - 40-122 µ/L High level indicates presence of a variety of liver diseases
-
-
-
-
-
Bilirubin Total - 0-22 µmol/L High level indicate liver and gallbladder disease, sometimes producing jaundice
-
-
-
-
-
Hemoglobin (HGB) - 135-170 g/L Indicates ability of RBC to carry oxygen from lungs throughout body; low level indicates anemia caused by nutritional deficiences, blood loss, internal destruction of blood cells, failure to produce blood in bone marrow; high level associated with lung disease or excessive blood cell production by bone marrow
158
154
153
152
-
Hematocrit (HCT) - 0.35-0.49 l/l Measures percentage of red blood cells in the blood. Low level indicates anaemia; high level indicates dehydration. Signs of abnormal values: fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain during exertion (may indicate heart disease)
0.47
0.45
0.45
0.44
-
RBC - 4.20-5.70 x 10e12/L Red blood cells (RBC) transport hemoglobin which, in turn, transport oxygen throughout the body; they survive for about 120 days. High count may indicate dehydration, heart or kidney disease, or high Erythropoietin level. Low count may indicate anemia, bone marrow failure, malnutrition, low Erythropoietin level; or iron, folate, B12, or B6 deficiencies
5.26
5.07
5.01
5.05
-
- 80-97 fl Average size of red blood cells; low value suggests iron deficiency, a high value B12 or Folate deficiency
89.6
88.9
89.3
88.0
-
MCH
- 27-32 pg Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell
30.0
30.4
30.6
30.1
-
MCHC
- 320-360 g/L Hemoglobin amount per average red blood cell
335
342
342
342
-
- 11.5-15.5 Red blood cell distribution width
13.5
13.1
13.8
13.3
-
WBC - 4.0-11.0 x 10e9/L White blood count (WBC); high level associated with infection, leukemia, and severe emotional or physical stress; low level associated with bone marrow failure, and liver or spleen diseases
10.0
9.6
9.6
7.8
-
Platelets (PLT) - 145-400 x 10e9/L Platelets are very small cells, produced in bone marrow, in the blood that clump together at sites of injury to blood vessals; a low count indicates vulnerablity to bleeding; a high count indicates vunerability to blood clots, usually associated with bone marrow failure from diseases such as leukaemia or myelofibrosis
288
272
292
278
-
Differential WBC's Neutrophils
- 1.8-7.0 x 10e9/L 40-60% of WBCs. High count may indicate infection, cancer, arthritis, or stress
5.60
5.66
5.86
4.37
-
Lymphocytes
- 1.0-3.2 x 10e9/L 20-40% of WBCs. Fight infections and provide immunity to certain diseases. Produced in bone marrow and by lymph glands, spleen, tonsils, and the thymus gland. They move between the lymph system and the blood. In addition to producing antibodies, they also function as regulators of immune responses. Low count may indicate AIDS
3.00
2.69
2.50
2.50
-
Monocytes
- 0.0-0.8 x 10e9/L 2-8% of WBCs. High count indicates infection due to bacteria
0.80
0.58
0.67
0.62
-
Eosinophils
- 0.0-0.4 x 10e9/L 1-4% of WBCs. High count indicates allergies, skin disease, or parasitic infections
0.50
0.58
0.48
0.39
-
Basophils
- 0.0-0.2 x 10e9/L 0.5-1% of WBCs. Releases histamine to increase blood supply and attract other white blood cells to an infected area. Low count may indicate allergic reaction
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-

Microalbumin
(Urine)

Annual <30 mg/day Albumin makes up 50% of protein in blood. Test checks for kidney disease. Transient high levels during collection period can be caused by: exercise, fever, infections, hypertension
-
-
-
-
-
Microalb/Creat (Urine) Annual <2.0 mg/mmol Checks for kidney disease
-
-
-
-
-

Microalbumin
(Urine-24 hour)

Annual <30 mg/day -
37
-
-
-
-
Microalb/Creat (Urine-24 hour) Annual <2.0 mg/mmol Checks for kidney disease
4.6
-
1.82
-
-
Urine Volume
(Urine-24 hour)
Annual 600-1800mL/day Checks for kidney disease
1800
-
1010
-
-
Urine Creatinine
(Urine 24 hour)
Annual 7.1-15.9 mmol/day Checks for kidney disease; high level can indicate high level of protein in diet
19.1
-
17.1
-
-
Urine Protein
(Urine-24 hour)
Annual <0.15 g/day Checks for kidney disease
0.18
-
0.19
-
-
APOlipoprotein A1 Annual

<1.96 g/L

ApoA1, the primary component of HDL, studies indicate that this test is a better indicator of heart disease than HDL cholesterol
-
-
1.52
-
-
CRP
(C-reactive Protein)
Annual

<1.0 mg/L (low risk)
1-3 (average)
>3 (high risk)

Recent research suggests that patients with elevated basal levels of CRP are at an increased risk for heart disease
-
-
3.5
-
-
Homocysteine Annual

<8µmol/L (lab usually shows 15 as OK)

The major cause of death of diabetics is heart disease. High levels of plasma homocysteine (an amino acid) are associated with heart disease
-
-
7.0
-
-
Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) Annual <2.5ng/mL Diabetic men are more susceptible to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostrate cancer and should have an annual digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA test. Biopsy needed if PSA > 2.5
-
-
-
-
-
Thyroid -stimulating Hormone Test (sTSH) 5 years 0.35-5.00 mU/L TSH is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and regulates the thyroid gland. Checks for hypothyroidism which can have a major impact on the body's use of fats, proteins, carbs, vitamins, other hormones & drugs. High value can indicate: an underactive thyroid gland or pituitary gland problem; low value can indicate an overactive thyroid gland or damage to the pituitary gland
-
-
2.1
1.9
-
Flu Vaccine Annual - Diabetics are in the high risk category for contracting influenza, which is highly contagious & usually results in a cough, fever, chills, sore throat, headache, muscle aches & fatigue that lasts 3-5 days; but it can also lead to pneumonia, hospital, & death
-
-
-
-
-
Pneumococcal vaccine Once with one-time boost after 5 years Mar1501 Diabetics are in the high risk category for contracting pneumococcal disease, which can cause bacterial meningitis, blood infection (sepsis), bacterial pneumonia, & upper respiratory tract infections such as ear infection (acute otitis media) & sinusitis
-
-
-
-
-
Testosterone 5 years 8-37 nmol/L May affect sex drive & energy levels; decreases with age; may need to replace
-
-
-
-
-
Testoterone Bio Availability (or Free) 5 years 3-12 nmol/L Normal level for age
-
-
-
-
-
Eye Exam
(Dr Lixen Chungphaisan)
Annual - Ophthalmologist to check for retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma. Nov00: blurred long-distance vision. Nov01 & Dec02: no sign of problems. Prescription (sphere, cylnder, axis, add): OD -0.25 , -0.25, 080, +2.25; OS +0.25, 0, 0, +2.25.
-
-
-
-
-
Eyes Daily - Pay attention to blurred vision, frequent headaches, inability to see in dark, floating spots, colored rings or halos, decrease in side vision
-
-
-
-
-
Blood Glucose 6/day Fast & premeal : < 6mmol/L Postmeal: < 9mmol/L Record all test results. Follow Zone diet. Exercise daily. Don't eat if level above 6mmol/L
-
-
-
-
-
Feet Daily - Inspect for loss of sensation, cuts, abrasions, corns, calluses, warts
-
-
-
-
-
Teeth and mouth Daily - Pay attention to swollen or sore gums, bad breath, painful or loose teeth. Clean teeth and floss twice/day. Clean dentures daily. See dentist every 6 months.
-
-
-
-
-
Cardiovascular Daily - Watch for chest pain (tightness or burning), unexplained tiredness, shortness of breath, ankle swelling
-
-
-
-
-
Nerves Daily - Pay attention to any numbness, tingling, or unusual pains
-
-
-
-
-

Updated: October 2, 2005